Women who have a severely compromised immune system such as HIV may need to be screened annually as they are more likely to develop a persistent infection of HPV which can over time cause cervical abnormalities. Women who are HIV positive will need to attend screening every year, the screening test is usually taken outside of the National Screening program. Men with severely compromised immune system are also at higher risk of contracting HPV. Please check with your health care professional for further information on screening and vaccination.